In the middle of the 1990-ties, basic idea of a rocket thrust chamber using high temperature resistant CMCs (Ceramic Matrix Composites) as inner liner material (Dr.
Hermann Hald, DLR Stuttgart, Institute of Structures and Design), whereas the inherently micro-porous CMC material serves as diffusion solid at the transpiration cooled inner wall surface of the
combustion chamber. The inner liner should be covered by light weight, high strength and low thermal expansion Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), to create an integral composite rocket
After a few years of basic funding pre-development at DLR, wherein the fundamental physical questions could be answered and verified by several test campaigns at the
M3 test bench of DLR Lampoldshausen (European Rocket Engine Test Site), a closer collaboration between DLR and the European Space Transportation Industry (former Astrium ST) started in terms of
two relevant German technology projects called KSK and KERBEROS, responsibly accompanied by Black Engine Aerospace CEO Markus Ortelt over more than 16 years.
Fundamental numerical and design research in transpiration cooled active CMC structures as well as the verification in multiple cryogenic high performance test
campaigns at the P8 and the P6.1 technology test facilities of DLR enabled harvesting of all relevant scientific aspects and results to venture consequentially the step into the industrial